At the middle of the 21st century, organizations started to adopt the new management policies in response to rapid changes in the society (Richard, 2003). These changes shift demand and opportunities for labor, goods, and services. Today’s economy has become global. Advancement in technology has led to innovations that have transformed organizations especially in management. There is high competition to meet the customer expectations. Therefore, for an organization to compete well, managers must adopt innovations that increase performance (Richard, 2003).
Management is the act of coordinating and overseeing the work of other employees to achieve goals and objectives of the organization. However, management may include other duties not relate to coordinating the work of other employees. This may include tasks relating to partnerships and networking (Markus, 2010).
In most practices, managers are classified according to their level in the organization. These include the first-line managers, middle managers, and the top managers.
- Fist-line managers comprise those that supervise the lowest level of the organizational work. They are often referred to as supervisors.
- Middle managers refer to the level of management that is between the first-line managers and the top-level managers.
- Top-level managers include those that are at the top or those that are near the top of the management structure. They are responsible for decisions that affect the entire organization, including developing plans and goals of the organization.
Functions of management
The functions of management include:
1. Planning: this is the act of setting goal developing strategies for achieving those goals 2. Organizing: it is the act of arranging and structuring work to achieve the collective goal 3. Controlling: this involves supervising, comparing and making changes to improve performance 4. Leading: this involves working with and trough people to achieve the collective goal
The functions of management are interdepending. Therefore, organizations that adopt good practices improve the capacity of employees to make delegation more effective. By building the capacity of employees and adopting policies that improve the working conditions, organizations realize high productivity with their employees (Griffin et al, 2014).
Most organizations have human management policies that include the important element of managing people. These policies improve the process of selecting employees, improve their performance, and develop their careers through their job. Managers must ensure that they get people with competitive skills. This works to ensure that the clients’ needs are met and to the best (Gomez et al, 2008)
A good human resource management policy must include nine elements these include;
- Equal opportunities and diversity
- Health and safety
- Selection and Recruitment
- Terms and conditions
- Prevention of bullying and harassment
- Staff development
- Grievance procedures
- Performance management
- Disciplinary procedures
Equal Opportunity and Diversity
Most organizations subscribe to the policy of non-discrimination and equal opportunities in all matters. This includes ensuring equality in matters pertaining job opportunities and conditions of work. The policies also ensure that the working environment is non-discriminative (Manfred, 2003). Employees earn promotions on merit. This policy also ensures that people with disabilities and women are not discriminated during employment and at the place of work (Klemlem, 2010).
Most often organizations include this principle in job contracts. It is usually a statement of good practices within the organization (Kahn, 2015). In many organizations, this policy includes equal opportunity and non-discrimination regardless of sex, age, race, nationality, religious belief, marital status, sexual orientation, and ethnicity among others (John, 2010)
This policy promotes diversity and universal values that ensure the dignity of every employee. Universal or particular government policies may influence the aspects of diversity (Alan 2008(. These influences may be because of trends or best practices that promote human dignity elsewhere. This may require the organization to revise the aspects of diversity and equal opportunity. For example, the government or international law may require organizations to promote the dignity of people living with HIV/AIDS by giving them equal opportunities with others (Geary, 2011).